Supported Functions

Temml is a JavaScript library that converts TeX math-mode functions to MathML. This page lists the TeX functions it supports, sorted into logical groups.

There is a similar Support Table, sorted alphabetically, that lists both supported and some un-supported functions.


f f'a~ \tilde{a}ac~ \widetilde{ac}
f f''F \vec{F}AB~ \utilde{AB}
f f^{\prime}AB \overleftarrow{AB}ABC \overrightarrow{ABC}
aˊ \acute{a}AB \underleftarrow{AB}AB \underrightarrow{AB}
y \bar{y}AB \overline{AB}AB \Overrightarrow{AB}
a˘ \breve{a}AB \underline{AB}AB \overleftrightarrow{AB}
aˇ \check{a}acˇ \widecheck{ac}AB \underleftrightarrow{AB}
a˙ \dot{a}ac \overleftharpoon{ac}ac \overrightharpoon{ac}
a¨ \ddot{a}AB \overgroup{AB}AB \wideparen{AB}
a \dddot{a}AB \undergroup{AB}AB \overparen{AB}
a…. \ddddot{a}X \underbar{X}AB \underparen{AB}
a` \grave{a}g˚ \mathring{g}AB \overbrace{AB}
θ^ \hat{\theta}ac^ \widehat{ac}AB \underbrace{AB}
f f^{\dprime}f f^{\trprime}f f^{\qprime}
σ \sigma^{\backprime}σ \sigma^{\backdprime}σ \sigma^{\backtrprime}

Accent functions inside \text{…}

\'{a} \~{a} \.{a} \H{a}
\`{a} \={a} \"{a} \v{a}
\^{a} \u{a} \r{a}c¸ \c{c}

See also letters


5 \cancel{5}a+b+cnote \overbrace{a+b+c}^{\text{note}}
5 \bcancel{5}a+b+cnote \underbrace{a+b+c}_{\text{note}}
ABC \xcancel{ABC}π=cd \boxed{\pi=\frac c d}
abc \sout{abc}



\tag{hi} x+y^{2x} \label{tag1}


\tag*{bye} x+y^{2x}

Also some environments have automatic equation numbering.

A \label{…} may be placed anywhere and will create an HTML id matching the \label{…} argument. That argument may contain only the characters A-Za-z0-9_-.

On sites where Temml fields are updated dynamically, \ref{…} may not be supported. Other Temml functions update only the local field. \ref{…} must make two passes through the entire document. Some sites may choose not to do this.


F=ma {\color{blue} F=ma}F=ma {\color[RGB]{255,0,255} F=ma}
F=ma \textcolor{blue}{F=ma}F=ma {\color[rgb]{1,0,1} F=ma}
F=ma \textcolor{#228B22}{F=ma}F=ma {\color[HTML]{ff00ff} F=ma}
A \colorbox{aqua}{A}\definecolor{sortaGreen}{RGB}{128,128,0}
F=ma {\color{sortaGreen} F=ma}
A \fcolorbox{red}{aqua}{A}

\definecolor functions can be included in a preamble. If so, their color definitions will have document-wide scope.

Color functions can all take an optional argument to set the color model, as in the xcolor package. (Exception: \definecolor’s model argument is required.) Temml supports color models HTML, RGB, and rgb.

If the color model is omitted, Temml color functions will accept:

  Apricot   ForestGreen   olive   RoyalPurple
  Aquamarine   Fuchsia   OliveGreen   RubineRed
  Bittersweet   Goldenrod   orange   Salmon
  blue   gray   Orange   SeaGreen
  Blue   Gray   OrangeRed   Sepia
  BlueGreen   green   Orchid   SkyBlue
  BlueViolet   Green   Peach   SpringGreen
  BrickRed   GreenYellow   Periwinkle   Tan
  brown   JungleGreen   PineGreen   teal
  Brown   Lavender   pink   TealBlue
  BurntOrange   lightgray   Plum   Thistle
  CadetBlue   lime   ProcessBlue   Turquoise
  CarnationPink   LimeGreen   purple   violet
  Cerulean   magenta   Purple   Violet
  CornflowerBlue   Magenta   RawSienna   VioletRed
  cyan   Mahogany   red   WildStrawberry
  Cyan   Maroon   Red   yellow
  Dandelion   Melon   RedOrange   Yellow
  darkgray   MidnightBlue   RedViolet   YellowGreen
  DarkOrchid   Mulberry   Rhodamine   YellowOrange
  Emerald   NavyBlue   RoyalBlue


( ) ( )( ) \lparen
  ⌈ ⌉  \lceil
[ ] [ ][ ] \lbrack
  ⌊ ⌋  \lfloor
{} \{ \}{} \lbrace
⎰⎱ \lmoustache
  ⟨ ⟩  \langle
  ⟮ ⟯  \lgroup
<> \lt
┌ ┐ \ulcorner
| || \vert └ ┘ \llcorner
\| \Vert\left.\right.\ \backslash
| | \lvert
  ⟦ ⟧  \llbracket
  \lBrace \rBrace


  \llangle \rrangle

The texvc extension includes \lang and \rang.

Delimiter Sizing

(AB) \left(\LARGE{AB}\right)

((((( ( \big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg(




   a & b \\
   c & d
   a & b \\
   c & d
   a & b \\
   c & d
   a & b \\
   c & d
   a & b \\
   c & d
   a & b \\
   c & d
   a & b \\
   c & d
  a & b & c \\ \hline
   d & e & f \\
   g & h & i
x={aif bcif dx = \begin{cases}
   a &\text{if } b \\
   c &\text{if } d
aif bcif d}\begin{rcases}
   a &\text{if } b \\
  c &\text{if } d
   a & b \\
   c & d



AMS Environments

The auto-render extension will render the following environments even if they are not inside math delimiters such as $$…$$. They are display-mode only.


   a &=b+c\\


   a&=b+c \\


   a=b \\


   10&x+ &3&y = 2 \\
   3&x+&13&y = 4


A @>a>> B \\
@VbVV @AAcA \\
C @= D


   \rm uno \\
   \rm dos \\
   \rm tres

Other Temml Environments

Environments How they differ from those shown above
darray, dcases, drcases… apply displaystyle
matrix*, pmatrix*, bmatrix*
Bmatrix*, vmatrix*, Vmatrix*
… take an optional argument that sets column
alignment, as in \begin{matrix*}[r]
equation*, gather*
align*, alignat*
… have no automatic numbering.
gathered, aligned, alignedat… do not need to be in display mode.
… have no automatic numbering.
… must be inside math delimiters in
order to be rendered by the auto-render

Acceptable horizontal line separators are: \\ and \cr.

Temml supports \tag{…}, \notag, and \nonumber to modify equation numbering.

The {array} environment does not yet support \cline or \multicolumn.


The following "raw HTML" features are potentially dangerous for untrusted inputs, so they are disabled by default, and attempting to use them produces the command names in red (which you can configure via the errorColor option). To fully trust your LaTeX input, you need to pass an option of trust: true; you can also enable just some of the commands or for just some URLs via the trust option.

totalheight=1.2em,width=1.2em, alt=sphere]
x\style{color: red;}{x}
x\data{datum1=a, datum2=b}{x}


Greek Letters

Α \AlphaΒ \BetaΓ \GammaΔ \DeltaΕ \Epsilon
Ζ \ZetaΗ \EtaΘ \ThetaΙ \IotaΚ \Kappa
Λ \LambdaΜ \MuΝ \NuΞ \XiΟ \Omicron
Π \PiΡ \RhoΣ \SigmaΤ \TauΥ \Upsilon
Φ \PhiΧ \ChiΨ \PsiΩ \Omega𝛤 \varGamma
𝛥 \varDelta𝛩 \varTheta𝛬 \varLambda𝛯 \varXi𝛱 \varPi
𝛴 \varSigma𝛶 \varUpsilon𝛷 \varPhi𝛹 \varPsi𝛺 \varOmega
α \alphaβ \betaγ \gammaδ \deltaϵ \epsilon
ζ \zetaη \etaθ \thetaι \iotaκ \kappa
λ \lambdaμ \muν \nuξ \xiο \omicron
π \piρ \rhoσ \sigmaτ \tauυ \upsilon
ϕ \phiχ \chiψ \psiω \omega

α \upalphaβ \upbetaγ \upgammaδ \updeltaϵ \upepsilon
ζ \upzetaη \upetaθ \upthetaι \upiotaκ \upkappa
λ \uplambdaμ \upmuν \upnuξ \upxiο \upomicron
π \uppiρ \uprhoσ \upsigmaτ \uptauυ \upupsilon
ϕ \upphiχ \upchiψ \uppsiω \upomega

ε \varepsilonϰ \varkappaϑ \varthetaϖ \varpiϱ \varrho
ς \varsigmaφ \varphiϘ \Coppaϙ \coppaϞ \Koppa
ϟ \koppaϠ \Sampiϡ \sampiϚ \Stigmaϛ \stigma
ϝ \digammaϙ \varcoppa

Direct Input: Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω α β γ δ ϵ ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ o π ρ σ τ υ ϕ χ ψ ω ε ϑ ϖ ϱ ς φ ϝ

Other Letters

\aleph \nablaı \imath \text{\aa}Œ \text{\OE}
\beth \partialȷ \jmath \text{\AA}ø \text{\o}
\gimel \Game \Im \AngstromØ \text{\O}
\daleth \Finv𝕜 \Bbbkæ \text{\ae}ß \text{\ss}
ð \eth \hbar \ReÆ \text{\AE}ı \text{\i}
\ell \hslash \wpœ \text{\oe}ȷ \text{\j}

Letters in the texvc extension

\alef \Complex \natnums \real \weierp
\alefsym \image \R \realsϑ \thetasym
\cnums \N \Reals


Direct Input: ∂ ∇ ℑ Ⅎ ℵ ℶ ℷ ℸ ⅁ ℏ ð À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô ö ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ ₊ ₋ ₌ ₍ ₎ ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉ ₐ ₑ ₕ ᵢ ⱼ ₖ ₗ ₘ ₙ ₒ ₚ ᵣ ₛ ₜ ᵤ ᵥ ₓ ᵦ ᵧ ᵨ ᵩ ᵪ ⁺ ⁻ ⁼ ⁽ ⁾ ⁰ ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ᵃ ᵇ ᶜ ᵈ ᵉ ᵍ ʰ ⁱ ʲ ᵏ ˡ ᵐ ⁿ ᵒ ᵖ ʳ ˢ ᵗ ᵘ ʷ ˣ ʸ ᶻ ᵛ ᵝ ᵞ ᵟ ᵠ ᵡ

Math-mode Unicode (sub|super)script characters will render as if you had written regular characters in a subscript or superscript. For instance, A²⁺³ will render the same as A^{2+3}.

Unicode Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols

Item Range Item Range
Bold𝐀-𝐙 𝐚-𝐳 𝟎-𝟗Double-struck𝔸-ℤ 𝕒-𝕫 𝟘-𝟡
Italic𝐴-𝑍 𝑎-𝑧Sans serif𝖠-𝖹 𝖺-𝗓 𝟢-𝟫
Bold Italic𝑨-𝒁 𝒂-𝒛Sans serif bold𝗔-𝗭 𝗮-𝘇 𝟬-𝟵
Monospace𝙰-𝚉 𝚊-𝚣 𝟶-𝟿Sans serif italic𝘈-𝘡 𝘢-𝘻
Script𝒜-𝒵 𝒶-𝓏Sans serif bold italic𝘼-𝙕 𝙖-𝙯
Fraktur𝔄-ℨ𝔞-𝔷Bold Fraktur𝕬-𝖅𝖆-𝖟

There are two methods that will render any Unicode charater:

  1. Use the \char function and the Unicode code in hex. For example \char"263a will render as .

  2. Write the character inside \text{…}. For example, \text{☺} will render as .

More about Unicode script…

The Unicode range U+1D49C - U+1D4B5, Mathematical Script, has been ambiguous. Some fonts put chancery glyphs (𝒜𝒞) at those code points and some fonts use roundhand glyphs (𝒜𝒞). Temml’s default for code points in this range is chancery, which matches the fonts Cambria Math and STIX TWO. It also matches the TeX function \mathcal{…}.

Per Unicode 14+, Temml will return a roundhand glyph if you append a \ufe01 to a character in the range 𝒜-𝒵.


Line Breaks

Hard line breaks are \\ and \newline.

Temml inserts soft line breaks per TeXbook p. 173 if not in display mode and no hard line breaks are employed. They work in Chromium and Firefox, but not in Safari.


 ab\reflectbox{$\frac a b$}

Vertical Layout

xn x_n=! \stackrel{!}{=}abc a\raisebox{0.25em}{b}c
ex e^x=! \overset{!}{=}MM2M M\raise3pt{M^2}M
uo _u^o=! \underset{!}{=}MM2M M\lower3pt{M^2}M

ab a \atop b



LaTeX puts the second argument of \raisebox into text mode, but it can contain math if the math is nested within $…$ delimiters, as in \raisebox{0.25em}{$\frac a b$}

Overlap and Spacing

=// {=}\mathllap{/\,}(x2) \left(x^{\smash{2}}\right)
/= \mathrlap{\,/}{=}y \sqrt{\smash[b]{y}}


\sum_{\mathclap{1\le i\le j\le n}} x_{ij}

Temml also supports \llap, \rlap, and \clap. They work only in text mode if the rendering options include strict: true.


Function Produces Function Produces
\,³∕₁₈ em space\kern{distance}space, width = distance
\thinspace³∕₁₈ em space\mkern{distance}space, width = distance
\>⁴∕₁₈ em space\mskip{distance}space, width = distance
\:⁴∕₁₈ em space\hskip{distance}space, width = distance
\medspace⁴∕₁₈ em space\hspace{distance}space, width = distance
\;⁵∕₁₈ em space\hspace*{distance}space, width = distance
\thickspace⁵∕₁₈ em space\phantom{content}space the width and height of content
\enspace½ em space\hphantom{content}space the width of content
\quad1 em space\vphantom{content}a strut the height of content
\qquad2 em space\!– ³∕₁₈ em space
~non-breaking space\negthinspace– ³∕₁₈ em space
\<space>space\negmedspace– ⁴∕₁₈ em space
\nobreakspacenon-breaking space\negthickspace– ⁵∕₁₈ em space


distance will accept any of the Temml units.

\kern\mkern, \mskip, and \hskip accept unbraced distances, as in: \kern1em.

\mkern and \mskip will not work in text mode and both will write a console warning for any unit except mu.

\rule{}{distance} is valuable as a vertical strut.

Logic and Set Theory

\forall \complement \therefore \emptyset
\exists \subset \because \varnothing
\nexists \supset \mapsto \implies
\in| \mid \to \impliedby
\ni \land \gets \iff
\notin \lor \QED \lightning
\notni¬ \neg or \lnot{x|x<12}
\Set{ x | x<\frac 1 2 }
\strictif \strictfi

Linear Logic (from the cmll package):

Operators! \oc? \wn& \with \parr
\shpos \shneg \shift \invamp
Relations \coh \scoh \Perp \multimapboth
\incoh \sincoh


Equivalents in the texvc extension

\exist \isin \empty \sub

Direct Input: ∀ ∴ ∁ ∵ ∃ ∣ ∈ ∉ ∋ ⊂ ⊃ ∧ ∨ ↦ → ← ↔ ∅ ⟹ ⟺ ¬ ↯ ⥼ ⥽


\def\def\macroname<arg list>{definition to be expanded}
x2+x2\def\foo{x^2} \foo + \foo
\gdef\gdef\macroname<arg list>{definition to be expanded}
a2b3+c2d3\gdef\foo#1#2{#1^2 #2^3} \foo a b + \foo c d
\xdef\xdef\macroname#1#2…{definition to be expanded}
\futurelet\futurelet\foo\bar x
a2b3+c2d3\newcommand\foo[2]{#1^2 #2^3} \foo a b + \foo c d

To create macros with document-wide scope, use \gdef, \global\let, or define a preamble in one of the Temml rendering options. (Global macros may be disabled for security reasons.)

Macros accept up to nine arguments: #1, #2, etc.

Available functions include:
\char \mathchoice \TextOrMath \@ifstar \@ifnextchar \@firstoftwo \@secondoftwo \relax \expandafter \noexpand

@ is a valid character for commands, as if \makeatletter were in effect.

Temml has no \par, so \long is ignored.


Big Operators

\sum \prod \bigotimes \bigvee
\int \coprod \bigoplus \bigwedge
\iint \intop \bigodot \bigcap
\iiint \smallint \biguplus \bigcup
\iiiint \intcap \intcup \bigsqcup
\oint \varointclockwise \intclockwise \bigsqcap
\oiint \pointint \rppolint \scpolint
\oiiint \intlarhk \sqint \intx
\intbar \intBar \fint \bigtimes

cdab \sideset{_a^b}{_c^d}\sum

Direct Input: ∫ ∬ ∭ ⨌ ∮ ∯ ∰ ⨖ ∲ ∏ ∐ ∑ ⋀ ⋁ ⋂ ⋃ ⨀ ⨁ ⨂ ⨄ ⨆ ⨅

Binary Operators

+ + \closedvarcap \lhd \sslash
- \closedvarcup \ltimes \threedotcolon
/ / \Cup or \doublecup \minusdot× \times
* * \cup \minusfdots \twocaps
⨿ \amalg \cupovercap \minusrdots \twocups
& \And or \with \curlyveexmoda x\mod a \typecolon
\ast \curlywedge \mp \unlhd
\barcap÷ \div \parr or \upand \unrhd
\barcup \divideontimes± \pm \uplus
\barvee or \Nor  \dotminus x(moda) x \pmod a \Vee
\barwedge or \Nand \dotplusx(a) x \pod a \vee or \lor
mod \bmod \doublebarvee \rhd \veebar or \Xor
\bowtie or
\doublebarwedge \rightouterjoin \veedot
\bullet \fullouterjoin \rightthreetimes \veedoublebar
\Cap or \doublecap \gtrdot \rtimes \veeonvee
\cap \intercal \setminus \Wedge
\capbarcup \interleave \shuffle \wedge or \land
\capdot \invlazys \smallsetminus \wedgebar
\capovercup \leftthreetimes \smashtimes \wedgedot
\cdot \leftouterjoin \sqcap \wedgedoublebar
· \cdotp \leftmodels \Sqcap \wedgeonwedge
\centerdot. \ldotp \sqcup \wr
\circ \lessdot \Sqcup

The texvc extension provides ± \plusmn.

Direct Input: + - / ∖ * ⋅ ∘ ± × ÷ ∓ ∔ ∧ ∨ ∩ ∪ ≀ ⊎ ⊓ ⊔ ⋈ ⟕ ⟖ ⟗

Geometric Binary Operators

\bigcirc \circledvert \ominus
\blackhourglass \circlehbar \operp
\boxast \concavediamond⊕︎ \oplus
\boxbox \concavediamondtickleft \oslash
\boxcircle \concavediamondtickright \otimes
\boxdot \diamond \Otimes
\boxminus \hourglass \otimeshat
\boxplus \lozengeminus \star
\boxtimes \obar \triangle
\circledast \obslash \triangleminus
\circledcirc \odiv \triangleplus
\circleddash \odot \triangletimes
\circledequal \ogreaterthan \whitesquaretickleft
\circledparallel \olessthan \whitesquaretickright

Direct Input: ◯ ⧗ ⧆ ⧈ ⧇ ⊡ ⊟ ⊞ ⊠ ⊛ ⊚ ⊖ ⊜ ⦷ ⦶ ⦵ ⟡ ⟢ ⟣ ⋄ ⧖ ⟠ ⌽ ⦸ ⨸ ⊙ ⧁ ⧀ ⊝ ⦹ ⊕ ⊘ ⊗ ⨷ ⨶ ⋆ △ ⨺ ⨻ ⟤ ⟥

Fractions and Binomials

ab \frac{a}{b}ab \tfrac{a}{b}(aa+1] \genfrac ( ] {2pt}{1}a{a+1}
ab {a \over b}ab \dfrac{a}{b}ab+1 {a \above{2pt} b+1}
a/b   a/b

a1+1b \cfrac{a}{1 + \cfrac{1}{b}}
(nk) \binom{n}{k}(nk) \dbinom{n}{k}{nk} {n\brace k}
(nk) {n \choose k}(nk) \tbinom{n}{k}[nk] {n\brack k}

Math Operators

f \operatorname{f}cosec \cosecdim \dim2xyf \pdv*{f}{x,y}
arcsin \arcsincosh \coshexp \expsec \sec
arccos \arccoscot \cothom \homsgn \sgn
arctan \arctancotg \cotgker \kersin \sin
arctg \arctgcoth \cothlg \lgsinh \sinh
arcctg \arcctgcsc \cscln \lnsh \sh
arg \argctg \ctg log \logtan \tan
ch \chcth \cthdfdx \odv{f}{x}tanh \tanh
cos \cos \nabladdxf \odv*{f}{x}tg \tg
\partialdeg \deg2fxy `\pdv{f}{x,y}th \th
f \operatorname*{f} or
inf \infmax \maxsup \sup
arg max \argmaxinj lim \injlimmin \minlim \varinjlim
arg min \argminlim \limplim \plimlim \varliminf
det \detlim inf \liminfPr \Prlim \varlimsup
gcd \gcdlim sup \limsupproj lim \projlimlim \varprojlim

Functions in the bottom five rows of this table can take \limits.

Enclosing Operators

x \sqrt{x}an   a_{\angl n}
x3 \sqrt[3]{x}an   a_\angln

Physics and Chemistry

ϕ| \bra{\phi}𝐂25+a2 \prescript{a}{2}{\mathbf{C}}^{5+}_{2}
|ψ \ket{\psi}ϕ|ψ \braket{\phi\vert\psi}
ϕ| \Bra{\phi}ϕ|2t2|ψ
\Braket{ \phi | \frac{\partial^2}{\partial t^2} | \psi }
|ψ \Ket{\psi}

From the mhchem extension:

SO42+Ba2+BaSO4\ce{SO4^2- + Ba^2+ -> BaSO4 v}
75.3 JmolK\pu{75.3 J // mol K}

There is much more mhchem information in the mhchem docs.

Click to see the physics extension.
|x| \abs{x}a|b \innerproduct{a}{b}if \qif
|x| \absolutevalue{x}|ab| \ketbra{a}{b}in \qin
{A,B} \acomm{A}{B}2 \laplacianinteger \qinteger
{A,B} \anticommutator{A}{B}n|A|m \matrixel{n}{A}{m}let \qlet
{5mm} \Bqty{5 \text{mm}}n|A|m \matrixelement{n}{A}{m}odd \qodd
[5mm] \bqty{5 \text{mm}}n|A|m \mel{n}{A}{m}or \qor
[A,B] \comm{A}{B}x \norm{x}otherwise \qotherwise
[A,B] \commutator{A}{B}|ab| \op{a}{b} text  \qq{text}
× \cp𝒪(x2) \order{x^2} text  \qqtext{text}
× \cross|ab| \outerproduct{a}{b}since \qsince
× \crossproductxy \partialderivative{x}{y}then \qthen
× \curl{x,y} \pb{x}{y}{5m} \qty{5 \text{m}}
d \dd

{5m} \quantity{5 \text{m}}
dxdy \derivative{x}{y}{A,B} \poissonbracket{A}{B}unless \qunless
d \differential(5) \pqty{5}using \qusing
\divergence𝒫 \principalvaluerankM \rank M
\dotproduct𝒫 \pvRes[f(z)] \Res\[f(z)\]
dxdy \dv{x}{y}P.V.(x) \PV(x)Trρ \Tr\rho
|ab| \dyad{a}{b}all \qalltrρ \tr\rho
erf(x) \erf(x)and \qand𝒂 \va{a}
x \ev{x}as \qasδ \var
12x|0n \eval{\tfrac 1 2 x}_0^nassume \qassumeδ \variation
12x|0n \evaluated{\tfrac 1 2 x}_0^n, \qc𝒂 \vb{a}
x \expectationvalue{x}c.c. \qcc \vdot
x \expval{x}, \qcomma𝒂 \vectorarrow{a}
δxδy \fdv{x}{y}else \qelse𝒂 \vectorbold{a}
δxδy \functionalderivative{x}{y}even \qeven𝒂^ \vectorunit{a}
\gradfor \qfor|x| \vqty{x}
\gradientgiven \qgiven𝒂^ \vu{a}


=!ab \stackrel{!}{=}

= = \eqcirc \lessgtr \smile
< < \eqcolon or
\lesssim \sqsubset
> >−∷ \Eqcolon or
\ll \sqsubseteq
: : \eqqcolon \lll \sqsupset
:= :==∷ \Eqqcolon \llless \sqsupseteq
\approx \eqdef< \lt \stareq
\approxeq \eqsim \measeq \Subset
\arceq \eqslantgtr| \mid \subset
\asymp \eqslantless \models \subseteq
\backcong \equiv \multimap \subseteqq
\backepsilon \fallingdotseq \multimapboth \succ
\backsim \frown \multimapinv \succapprox
\backsimeq \ge \origof \succcurlyeq
\between \geq \owns \succeq
\bumpeq \geqq \parallel \succsim
\Bumpeq \geqslant \perp \Supset
\circeq \gg \Perp \supset
\coh \ggg \pitchfork \supseteq
: \colonapprox \gggtr \prec \supseteqq
∷≈ \Colonapprox or
> \gt \precapprox \thickapprox
: \coloneq or
\gtrapprox \preccurlyeq \thicksim
∷− \Coloneq or
\gtreqless \preceq \trianglelefteq
\coloneqq or
\gtreqqless \precsim \triangleq
\Coloneqq or
\gtrless \propto \trianglerighteq
: \colonsim \gtrsim \questeq \varpropto
: \Colonsim or
\imageof:\ratio or
\cong \in or \isin \risingdotseq \vartriangleleft
\curlyeqprec \incoh \scoh \vartriangleright
\curlyeqsucc \le \shortmid \vdash
\dashv \leq \shortparallel \vDash
\dblcolon or
\leqq \sim \Vdash
\doteq \leqslant \simeq VDash
\Doteq \lessapprox \sincoh \Vvdash
\doteqdot \lesseqgtr \smallfrown \veeeq
\eqeq \lesseqqgtr \smallsmile \wedgeq

The texvc extension provides \sub, \sube, and \supe.

Direct Input: = < > : ∈ ∋ ∝ ∼ ∽ ≂ ≃ ≅ ≈ ≊ ≍ ≎ ≏ ≐ ≑ ≒ ≓ ⩵ ≖ ≗ ≜ ≡ ≤ ≥ ≦ ≧ ≫ ≬ ≳ ≷ ≺ ≻ ≼ ≽ ≾ ≿ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇ ⊏ ⊐ ⊑ ⊒ ⊢ ⊣ ⊩ ⊪ ⊸ ⋍ ⋐ ⋑ ⋔ ⋙ ⋛ ⋞ ⋟ ⌢ ⌣ ⩾ ⪆ ⪌ ⪕ ⪖ ⪯ ⪰ ⪷ ⪸ ⫅ ⫆ ≲ ⩽ ⪅ ≶ ⋚ ⪋ ⟂ ⊨ ≔ ≕ ⩴ ⊷ ⊶

Negated Relations

\not =

\gnapprox \ngeqslant \nsubset \nVdash
\gneq \ngtr \nsubseteq \precnapprox
\gneqq \nleq \nsubseteqq \precneqq
\gnsim \nleqq \nsucc \precnsim
≩︀ \gvertneqq \nleqslant \nsucceq \subsetneq
\lnapprox \nless \nsupset \subsetneqq
\lneq \nmid \nsupseteq \succnapprox
\lneqq \notin \nsupseteqq \succneqq
\lnsim \notni \ntriangleleft \succnsim
≨︀ \lvertneqq \nparallel \ntrianglelefteq \supsetneq
\ncong \nprec \ntriangleright \supsetneqq
\ne \npreceq \ntrianglerighteq⊊︀ \varsubsetneq
\neq \nshortmid \nvdash⫋︀ \varsubsetneqq
\ngeq \nshortparallel \nvDash \varsupsetneq
\ngeqq \nsim \nVDash⫌︀ \varsupsetneqq

Direct Input: ∉ ∌ ∤ ∦ ≁ ≆ ≠ ≨ ≩ ≮ ≯ ≰ ≱ ⊀ ⊁ ⊄ ⊅ ⊈ ⊉ ⊊ ⊋ ⊬ ⊭ ⊮ ⊯ ⋠ ⋡ ⋦ ⋧ ⋨ ⋩ ⋬ ⋭ ⪇ ⪈ ⪉ ⪊ ⪵ ⪶ ⪹ ⪺ ⫋ ⫌


\circlearrowleft \Leftrightarrow \restriction
\circlearrowright \leftrightarrows \rightarrow
\curvearrowleft \leftrightharpoons \Rightarrow
\curvearrowright \leftrightsquigarrow \rightarrowtail
\dashleftarrow \Lleftarrow \rightharpoondown
\dashrightarrow \longleftarrow \rightharpoonup
\downarrow \Longleftarrow \rightleftarrows
\Downarrow \longleftrightarrow \rightleftharpoons
\downdownarrows \Longleftrightarrow \rightrightarrows
\downharpoonleft \longmapsto \rightsquigarrow
\downharpoonright \longrightarrow \Rrightarrow
\gets \Longrightarrow \Rsh
\hookleftarrow \looparrowleft \searrow
\hookrightarrow \looparrowright \swarrow
\iff \Lsh \to
\impliedby \mapsfrom \twoheadleftarrow
\implies \mapsto \twoheadrightarrow
\leadsto \nearrow \uparrow
\leftarrow \nleftarrow \Uparrow
\Leftarrow \nLeftarrow \updownarrow
\leftarrowtail \nleftrightarrow \Updownarrow
\leftharpoondown \nLeftrightarrow \upharpoonleft
\leftharpoonup \nrightarrow \upharpoonright
\leftleftarrows \nRightarrow \upuparrows
\leftrightarrow \nwarrow

Arrows in the texvc extension

\Darr \Harr \Larr \Lrarr \Rarr \Uarr
\dArr \hArr \lArr \lrArr \rArr \uArr
\darr \harr \larr \lrarr \rarr \uarr

Direct Input: ← ↑ → ↓ ↔ ↕ ↖︎ ↗︎ ↘︎ ↙︎ ↚ ↛ ↞ ↠ ↢ ↣ ↦ ↩︎ ↪︎ ↫ ↬ ↭ ↮ ↰ ↱↶ ↷ ↺ ↻ ↼ ↽ ↾ ↾ ↿ ⇀ ⇁ ⇂ ⇃ ⇄ ⇆ ⇇ ⇈ ⇉ ⇊ ⇋ ⇌⇍ ⇎ ⇏ ⇐ ⇑ ⇒ ⇓ ⇔ ⇕ ⇚ ⇛ ⇝ ⇠ ⇢ ⟵ ⟶ ⟷ ⟸ ⟹ ⟺ ⟼ ↽

Extensible Arrows

abc \xleftarrow{abc}underover \xrightarrow[under]{over}
abc \xLeftarrow{abc}abc \xRightarrow{abc}
abc \xleftrightarrow{abc}abc \xLeftrightarrow{abc}
abc \xhookleftarrow{abc}abc \xhookrightarrow{abc}
abc \xtwoheadleftarrow{abc}abc \xtwoheadrightarrow{abc}
abc \xleftharpoonup{abc}abc \xrightharpoonup{abc}
abc \xleftharpoondown{abc}abc \xrightharpoondown{abc}
abcabc \xleftrightharpoons{abc}abcabc \xrightleftharpoons{abc}
abcabc \xtofrom{abc}abc \xmapsto{abc}
=abc \xlongequal{abc}

All extensible arrows can take an optional argument in the same manner as \xrightarrow[under]{over}.

Style, Size, and Font

Class Assignment

Override the usual spacing and semantic meaning of a character or fragment.

a=b   a = b
a=b   a \mathord{=} b
a=b   a \mathopen{=} b
a=b   a \mathclose{=} b
a|b   a | b
a|b   a \mathpunct{|} b
a|b   a \mathop{|} b
a|b   a \mathbin{|} b
a|b   a \mathrel{|} b

See also \operatorname.


Ab0 \mathrm{Ab0}𝐀𝐛𝟎𝛉 \mathbf{Ab0θ}Ab0θ \mathit{Ab0θ}
Ab0 \mathnormal{Ab0}𝐀𝐛𝟎𝛉 \textbf{Ab0θ}𝐴𝑏0𝜃 \textit{Ab0θ}
Ab0θ \textrm{Ab0θ}𝐀𝐛𝟎𝛉 {\bf Ab0θ}Ab0θ {\it Ab0θ}
Ab0 {\rm Ab0}𝐀𝐛𝟎𝛉 \bold{Ab0θ}Ab0θ \textup{Ab0θ}
Ab0θ \textnormal{Ab0θ}𝑨𝒃0𝜽 \boldsymbol{Ab0θ}𝔸𝕓𝟘 \Bbb{Ab0}
Ab0θ \text{Ab0θ}𝑨𝒃0𝜽 \bm{Ab0θ}𝔸𝕓𝟘 \mathbb{Ab0}
𝖠𝖻𝟢 \mathsf{Ab0}Ab0θ \textmd{Ab0θ}𝔄𝔟 \frak{Ab}
𝖠𝖻𝟢 \textsf{Ab0}𝙰𝚋𝟶 \mathtt{Ab0}𝔄𝔟 \mathfrak{Ab}
𝖠𝖻𝟢 {\sf Ab0}𝙰𝚋𝟶 \texttt{Ab0}𝒜 \mathcal{AB}
ʜᴇʏ \textsc{hey}𝙰𝚋𝟶 {\tt Ab0 }𝒜 {\cal AB}

𝒜 \mathscr{AB}

The \textXX versions can stack font family, font weight, and font shape. So \textsf{\textbf{H}} will produce 𝗛. The other versions do not stack, e.g., \mathsf{\mathbf{H}} will produce 𝐇.

In cases where math fonts do not have a bold glyph, \pmb can simulate one. For example, \pmb{\vartheta} renders as : ϑ

Font Size

AB \Huge ABAB \normalsize AB
AB \huge ABAB \small AB
AB \LARGE ABAB \footnotesize AB
AB \Large ABAB \scriptsize AB
AB \large ABAB \Tiny AB

AB \tiny AB


x\scriptstyle x     (The size of a first sub/superscript)
x\scriptscriptstyle x (The size of subsequent sub/superscripts)
limyx\lim\limits_y x
limyx\lim\nolimits_y x
ABcd ABcd\text{ABcd $ABcd$}

\text{…} shifts its contents into text mode, but you can shift back into math mode by nesting $…$.

Symbols and Punctuation

% comment \dotsTEX \TeX
% \% \cdotsLATEX \LaTeX
# \# \ddotsTEMML \Temml
& \& \ldots \rule[6pt]{2ex}{1ex}
_ \_ \vdots| \surd
_ \text{\textunderscore} \iddots \infty
\text{--} \dotsb \checkmark
\text{\textendash} \dotsc \ballotx
\text{---} \dotsi \dagger or \dag
\text{\textemdash} \dotsm \text{\textdagger}
~ \text{\textasciitilde} \dotso \ddagger or \ddag
^ \text{\textasciicircum} \idotsin \text{\textdaggerdbl}
$ $ `` `` \mathellipsis \angle
text{\textquoteleft} \text{\textellipsis} \measuredangle
\lq \Box \sphericalangle
\text{\textquoteright} \square \top
\rq \blacksquare \bot
\text{\textquotedblleft} \triangledown \Bot
" " \triangleleft$ \$ or \text{\textdollar}
\text{\textquotedblright} \triangleright¢ \cent
: \colon \bigtriangledown£ \pounds
\backprime \bigtriangleup£ \mathsterling
\prime \blacktriangle£ \text{\textsterling}
< \text{\textless} \blacktriangledown¥ \yen
> \text{\textgreater} \blacktriangleleft \euro
| \text{\textbar} \blacktriangleright \text{\texteuro}
\text{\textbardbl} \Diamond° \degree
{ \text{\textbraceleft} \lozenge° \text{\textdegree}
} \text{\textbraceright} \blacklozenge \mho
\ \text{\textbackslash} \bigstar \diagdown
\text{\textvisiblespace} \maltese \diagup
\text{\P} or \P \clubsuit \varclubsuit
§ \text{\S} or \S \diamondsuit \vardiamondsuit
© \copyright \heartsuit \varheartsuit
® \circledR \spadesuit \varspadesuit
\circledS \female \male
® \text{\textregistered} \astrosun \sun
\text{\textbullet} \leftmoon \rightmoon
\smiley \Earth \flat
\standardstate \natural \sharp
\permil \QED \lightning

Symbols in the texvc extension

\clubs \hearts \sdot
\diamonds \spades \infin
\bull§ \text{\sect} \Dagger

Direct Input: § ¶ £ ¥ € ∇ ∞ · ∠ ∡ ∢ ⌀ ♠ ♡ ♢ ♣ ♭ ♮ ♯ © ® ☺ ✓ ↯ ∎ … ⋮ ⋯ ⋱ ! ‼ ☉


Unit Value Unit Value
emCSS embp1/72​ inch
exCSS expc12 pt
mu1/18 emdd1238/1157​ pt
pt1/72.27 inchcc14856/1157 pt
mm1 mmnd685/642 pt
cm1 cmnc1370/107​ pt
in1 inchsp1/65536 pt

The effect of script level and font size:

Unit textstyle
normal size
scriptscript huge
em or ex

em and ex are affected by font size changes such as \Large, but they are not affected by script level, so they will not change size in a fraction numerator or an exponent.

mu is affected by both script level and font size.

The other units are absolute and are not affected by either script level or font size.

Copyright © 2021-2024 Ron Kok. Released under the MIT License